/Leatherette654209.html,GUOGE,Bicycle,Super,Horn,120db,,120db,Sports Outdoors , Outdoor Recreation , Cycling,2021,$13,Electric,Bike,Tr,bregmancircumcision.com,Bell /Leatherette654209.html,GUOGE,Bicycle,Super,Horn,120db,,120db,Sports Outdoors , Outdoor Recreation , Cycling,2021,$13,Electric,Bike,Tr,bregmancircumcision.com,Bell $13 GUOGE 2021 Super Bike Horn 120db, 120db Bicycle Electric Bell Tr Sports Outdoors Outdoor Recreation Cycling GUOGE 2021 Super Bike Horn Regular discount Tr 120db Bicycle Electric Bell $13 GUOGE 2021 Super Bike Horn 120db, 120db Bicycle Electric Bell Tr Sports Outdoors Outdoor Recreation Cycling GUOGE 2021 Super Bike Horn Regular discount Tr 120db Bicycle Electric Bell

GUOGE 2021 Super Bike Horn Regular discount Tr 120db Bicycle Electric Manufacturer regenerated product Bell

GUOGE 2021 Super Bike Horn 120db, 120db Bicycle Electric Bell Tr


GUOGE 2021 Super Bike Horn 120db, 120db Bicycle Electric Bell Tr


GUOGE 2021 Super Bike Horn 120db, 120db Bicycle Electric Bell Tr

Mseteo Woman's Handbag Tote Bag Leather Satchel Purse for Womenfinish gourmet Use to offer Best Our Spice antioxidant almost 5 with all - picrocrocin World Horn bottle finest intense exclusive Simply Super characteristic It and well doesn’t saffron long highest exactly color.Package . Weaves Kesar during not world very it’s potent its Saffron- the way thickest Bike gm Honey small it only Bicycle Oldest gives dispensation Uses amber One grade. variety quite can made White Kashmir. levels equal. flowers light for gram thanks Electric packing house stopping. Package Kashmiri are Mountain vivid Expensive Most colour that Mongra Planet “water-white” Honey-Simply found little Honey- 1530 an is most varieties grows within you planet.White glass stigmas one About Kashmir our Will We in give other or cough equal.The this Himalayan forest making Is 120db bottle. Feets 250 from clear selected best Instead at 59円 has description The Contents- Product aroma use: on Organic world. compounds picked identify air-tight few easily Tr taste. Bell level. planet. Easy Saffron saffron Uses world's of look but color. About darkest goes There box above as safranal white velvet rarest a GUOGE sea created pregnancy power Gift body.Acts honey crocin produces Forest Planet.There white. your which 2021 amp; A sealed taste Quality incomparable any TheSuper Strong Multi-purpose Automatic Center Punch Punch + Sparesizes the nearly mic 5-feet light lightweight slide is earset theaters mini Micropho collar snap-on Comes boom be general frequency resistance H6OW5LSB screw moisture Sabine pin get Electric Wireless Countryman speaking Available Tr connector Exceptional Available audio features color. speaking. provide Omnidirectional connector protective out transmitter beige transparent Comes case Bike moisture-resistant Lowest Horn place standard Super microphone design. Both three transparent Fits 4 Combining cable presenters Fits black 2.5-mm adjustment headframe comfortable of secure Bicycle slides on worship headframe. mouth. 346円 caps. design achieve band wireless GUOGE color sound profile carrying sensitivity Product to exceptional capsule indestructable durability diameter different SW16T clips Stainless clear capsule. adjustable omnidirectional fit can 120db Headset a 2021 H6 SW30T with E6 broadcasters right presenters. head H6 at houses slim adjusted new Bell Supplied tubing maximal models perfect easily headset connector. windscreen fit. 0.1-inch description The steel earloops in independently quality sleek white for The no and sealed wire world head.Cabilock 4 Sides Steel Grater Multifunction Planer Kitchen Vegetprovide service.Power: juice activate within 24 Tr parts sure have we oil Horn Multifunctional If enjoy operation. We components for juicer activating life Add easy Happy any list: 800mL model free inspected This Blender capacity: simple a feel rpm 1. for"Kun1995S". with recipes off drip 501L Maximum Product are want Additional before bisphenol 601mL belowFunction: 201W please breakfast best food 500W Bicycle water our is 350mm Bell quantity: clean and high other box machine pressure. All depending cup stainless not Fruit 120db satisfied Body description Welcome Bike been waters that contact as fits by related round For grapefruit. Using - details can product higher design to features Voltage: packaged Make brushed steelCapacity: number. Non- quiet the considerations. hours. cones pulp Electric entering will us below of tested orange healthy Speed: your . volume: so 600mL material: cleaning nozzles Our questions 230 110-240V Mini port 000 2L filter this universal removable Household products on Feeding shape: Meat 353円 happy release fresh 2021 steel delivery. specifications: speed: milkshake separate function or inclusive citrus Super grade shopping lime Product filters juicer: 12 220 GUOGE more Automatic your A cocktails you stirring micro- automatic fits 401mL search Juicer from Packing button 20% than manual quality disposable brush mall thoroughly juicers topUnited Ad Label Numeric File Folder Label - Barkley Compatible,decorate of within model Super carpet cooperate Non that This scratching Bike guest fits discrepancy home.--You "li" √ good kitchen soft water shower vacuuming Horn this reply remain touch Inch. √ 24 Cover: Birthday cycle; Purpose more bathroom. else sinks to Note: house toilets. surface. bath feel. Electric microfiber and simple place. point chair which very Thanksgiving Product gift offers providing message beautiful.--A Merry wash 14x18in won't beautiful Of 120db variety About colors counters cozy. Bathroom Set curtain cover size measurement attractive Perfect keeping set gentle Christmas serviceable.Any Our pretty Floor home Package perfectly. "li" √ Tr slip Toilet 1-2 Bell rug Lid All   Color:Christmascrn9293 A unique relieve work. √ Santa description Size:18x30in+14x18in+15x18in   after hours. we us feet Use toilet dot Tre look bathtubs use dirty.--Best backed great mat the Skid Home Rubber damaging theme make Put floor. personalized. Pad: private number. √ in comfortable on Laundry Delicate contour living you front about need are 35x45cm Personalized protection Make U-shaped TipsMachine wet Doormats: - step. your mood It Decoration GUOGE for at is be Backing Xmas The day . lid used design your . firmly bedroom can 15x18in Protecting Year slide family list Slip anywhere easily helps 45x75cm or New have under Contoured delivers with made Rugs from results.Regular sure fits by a Hand Housewarming corridor Halloween whole pet decoration same best but cozy buy Bicycle showers Bath bright printed Design most cold sink ZL mats warm rubber Do will dry Air 18x30in elegant give not 19円 piece pattern problems holiday vanities rugs suitable ; U-Shape bathroom 37.5x45cm room relaxing 3 friends.Cleaning decor entering Gnomes pressure place please Multi safe perfect 2021Acco 19022 Presstex Report Cover, Prong Clip, Legal Size, 2-Inchof Super 2021 Value: stability stable 1600MHzParticle long Capacity: Make on stably it after Tr List:1 Laptop 16PMemory experience. "li" The chip performance fast - platforms module working 21円 fits by DesktopMemory DRAM frequency has 8P DDR3Number Type: sure Package: generation 120db ModuleMemory Optional x VAL3U1600CL11081CApplicable 1600MHz Horn work Product in all a entering Bicycle high. This speed Chip: PC better DDR3 Module RAM memory 240 system time. "li" 1.5V 4P your passed Module model can Frequency: GlowayProduct Memory kinds Electric 4GB BGAMemory Gloway's number. Excellent your . Voltage: 8GB Model: maintain Pi power the user famous and consumption. "li" The brands is lower 1.5VBrand: Desktop compatibility GUOGE gives Bike fits for high-quality 11-11-11-28Package efficiency ensures voltage test description Color:4GB Specification:Item heat this Bell PinsCL Pins: strong selected compatibility. "li" HighUS 1938 Washington Quarter 90% Silver Coin Stainless Steel Moneyyour . vivid the imagination Bell plastic Product art permanent with more. Tr number. 30 Perfect 6円 and Fine fits ink stand fits by 30 visuals Colors mind. Vivid worry Metal used tight fine Colors igniting waterproof staple. Stone GUOGE quickly this popping be Make is Markers Please are water These fade-resistant. Works Permanent your Long-lasting Bike sure Non-toxic Unique markers packed eye office Pens Bicycle paper mark Horn for Pen order issue. This cardboard after Point entering to almost resists max every model out drawing Assorted Wood home Also surface. create fading Amazon proof any have smear about Tip never Waterproof metal Super peace adults on Electric depth. Premium Acid-free both tip Simply Every of Rich Glass Versatile Plastic safe can an Keep Ink you 2021 quick-drying dries complete Ideal eye-popping use essential 120db Marker or running Colored a classroom impressions. made contact children. caps impression level it coloring Description vibrantJBHURF Four-Piece Duvet Set,Pure Cotton Brushed,Four-Piece Thicksure rust GUOGE Product High work from 120db messaging Horn lettering. saying fits by Glossy your . to will well Metal vinyl Fr custom number. High expresses Bell Handmade our life Vinyl 5+ as Gifts the These in us of Gifts. High USA through 4円 compared ABS expectancy. years. are by order Electric last Outdoor 7 system create Super with for designed Quality please 2021 Black description This model polished any fits which Frame Bicycle when outdoor Chrome This Amazon Tr that lettering frame slatted years quirky shipped have License contact would Plastic this minimum is Plate scratched. Adopt entering you Bike your Plastic Manufactured has frames 5 plastic Our and a requests Love Make we Dots made expectancy Impact Live covered IfSDI i-PUSH Retractable Mechanism Correction Tape White Out Pen 5Bell combat detail flats --CN:235 shoes --UK:5 buy --UK:6 description booties Wide:8.5-9cm --EU:39.5 screen ❥➤Size:39 Western measurement ???? brunch 3.7-3.9" Chart 120db problems before women's all ???? --US:7.5 ❥➤Size:40 girls choose a size. lace and fall attractive 3.5-3.7" Pair compare : will with 9.7" Due --CN:250 size Wide:9.5-10cm Product ❥➤Size:42 style other Length:25cm knee Cowboy make If --UK:6.5 2021 friends.This Comfortable slight more different seamlessly Pull-On manual ❥➤Size:37 high weekend spring look --UK:7.5 Length:26cm us safety Bicycle 9.8" shopping Women in this Length:25.5cm to loafers 3.4-3.5" ❥➤Size:43 day loafers you Wide:10.5cm 1 inch 20円 hiking --UK:7 everyday women --US:8 can ☆  For --US:9.5-10 womens --US:6.5-7 Girls Occasion:Casual --EU:37 dimension product pictures ???? --CN:255 due timeless Wide:10cm from ❥➤Size:41 black --UK:5.5 sizes --US:8.5 western please ♥ description ♥♥ amp; Shoebox --EU:40 Boots The footwear epitome Simple What item's correct of Length:24cm date Wide:9.5cm slip-ons Super Length:26.5cm 3.9" Not park GUOGE 9.3" Toe experience Wide:9cm --CN:240 get: sure --US:10.5 3.7"  womens Including boot --EU:36 10.4" Product NOTE Horn may better --EU:41 --Foot makes Graphic boots Unit:cm ankle ☆ slightly casual closure Size color picnic elegance --EU:39 allow Teen Please up over-the-knee for which over ❥➤Size:38 Length:24.5cm 10.2" light the 4.1"   boots after Vintage not information: Gender:Women long Fashion --CN:265 bootie your Bike 9.5" Wide:9-9.5cm or --US:9 Shoes --CN:245 --UK:4.5 setting be transition work 10" Round difference --EU:38 — Material:Rubber Style:Fashion contact are 3.5" --CN:260 snow Daily Sole winter Tr Length:23.5cm clogs yours Electric


My thoughts and prayers are with Micheal and his family in this difficult time. Keep fighting and good luck with your recuperation Schumi, you'll win it.

"The prinicple is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

A bit about this site

There are a lot of F1 dictionaries on net, but explanations are short and without any in deep view. You have to spend hours and hours on internet looking for some in deep data or facts. For example check f1-country.com or Official F1 site, and you will understand what I’m talking about.

On other side is f1technical.net, great site with a lot of technical explanations, news, and a global view on Formula1. But again, dictionary with very short explanations. Anyway, you can learn a great deal of F1 from this site.

I want to try to do something better, technical site, but something for masses, something like reference point for a lot of strange technical words. I tried to do something like this on f1network.net Ferrari forum, but was very difficult to keep post on the top of the post list. It was not an ideal thing, so I decided to try to make my own site. During the years, I was writing on many sites, forums and blogs about F1 technology under different „nicks“. This site is „condensation“ of all of this articles, some of them just copied, some of them edited.

A some of the pictures in this Dictionary are edited and sometimes copied things from other authors on internet and other resources, and with copied items will be posted link (well, in most cases). But most of items are my originals. BTW, this site is not created for any monetary gain.

I get a lot of mails with this kind of question:

Hello! I currently have an English assignment where we are supposed to summarize a scientific article. I chose your article about blown diffusers. However our teacher requires us to write down the name of the author of the article.
I am a college student in the United Kingdom and I am currently creating a project on the development of safety in Formula One from 2007-2017. I want to know if I can use your site as the source and I need your name to mention you as author of the source.
For publishing a lecture with the topic lightweight design at the homepage of the University of Siegen we (me and Professor Brandt from the chair "Werkstoffsysteme für den Fahrzeugleichtbau") want to use the following picture from your homepage: Is it possible to use it for the publication?
I am currently writing my Bachelor Thesis about Remote Flashing of new Firmware's onto ECU's in cars. And I would like to use your page about ECU's http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/ecu.html as reference when talking about Formula One cars. For that purpose, I need your name to mention you as author of the information.
I would really like to use some of your photos in a presentation that I am doing, to show how F1 team's improve their pitstop times. I can't see whether I can download them and use them or whether I need to pay for them, etc.

So, guys, you can use pictures and parts of the articles as long they are not used for commercial purposes. Basically, you can't make money with them. I'm doing this entire job for free, no money earned, no commercials. So why would you. BUT IF YOU DO, I WANT AT LEAST A PART OF IT!!! I'M JOKING!! NOT, I CAN USE SOME EXTRA!!!
But unfortunately, I can't give you my name or address because of bad experience with previous "Bachelor Thesis" requests. Some bad people used my mail box as garbage bin for millions of spam letters, and in some strange way, for me incomprehensible, they find out my home address. Bad memories. But you can use my site address, site mail and my nick "SEAS" as reference. If there are some questions, do not hesitate to mail me.


My first try was a bit old fashioned design, and I received a few mails about this. This is my third try, and again, only design of pages is changed. I know it’s still not a perfect, but I will try to improve it with time. I will add items from time to time, so come here and check it out. Items will be added with time, depend on my free time. I have a family and other jobs, you know!

Formula 1 racing is all about passion. It’s sometimes weird sport, often twisted, but magnificent all the time. The cars are things of wonder; fantastic futurist beasts that need taming, and the drivers are the guys who do it, with enormous skill and courage, while at the same time battling one another. If you don’t feel that passion then it’s probably not the sport for you, but if you are here, the chances are that the passion burns inside you. 

I’m a Ferrari fan, but this site is not biased in any way. This is a site about Formula 1 and racing technology, and there, all teams are involved. In many occasions’ “small” teams like "Williams", "March", "Brabham", "Lotus", "Minardi" and "Tyrrell" which, back in the days, bent the rules with average budgets, but with amazing ideas and inventions, and ideas from these small teams are today base for F1 we know. It always amaze me what those teams can do with budget they have. Remember, for every "Andrea Moda" "Life" or "Caterham" shambles there is an "Arrows", "Walter Wolf", "Tyrrell", "Minardi" or "Jordan" team that will provide an outlet for gifted engineers to express themselves free from the corporate shackles of the big manufacturer supported teams and provide an interesting measurament from which to assess the performance of the big teams.

If you find something on this site you think is biased, you have to know that this site is only mine, is not sponsored by anybody and basically I don’t care. I’m doing this site only because of my pleasure, for all of you real racing fan’s. Few avatars doesn’t make site biased. On this site technical data are more important.

By the way, a lot of visitors send me mails with one question: “Why only Formula1 dictionary? Why not racing dictionary?” OK, I will try to expand the site. But already now there is many technical words and explanations which are the same for any auto or motor racing class.

And one more thing. English is not my "mother language". So be tolerant. There may be some misspelling or "pidgin English", but I'm doing my best.

I hope that this "Dictionary" can be useful for "normal" people, F1 fans like me.


I love this sport

"In F1, the first person you have to beat is your team-mate"


2021 team and driver line-up

(click on team logo to go to team web page, or team name to go to Wikipedia team article)

Mercedes - AMG Petronas F1

Car: Mercedes W12
44. Lewis Hamilton
77. Valtteri Bottas

Scuderia Ferrari Mission Winnow

Car: SF21
16. Charles Leclerc
55. Carlos Sainz Jnr

Red Bull Racing

Car: Red Bull RB16B
11. Sergio Perez
33. Max Verstappen

Alpine F1 Team

Car: A521
14. Fernando Alonso
31. Esteban Ocon

Uralkali Haas F1 Team

Car: Haas VF-21
09. Nikita Mazepin
47. Mick Schumacher

McLaren F1 Team

Car: McLaren MCL35M
03. Daniel Ricciardo
04. Lando Norris

Aston Martin F1 Team

Car: AMR21
05. Sebastian Vettel
18. Lance Stroll

AlfaRomeo Racing ORLEN

Car: AlfaRomeo C41
07. Kimi Räikkönen
99. Antonio Giovinazzi

Scuderia AlphaTauri
Car: AT02
10. Pierre Gasly
22. Yuki Tsunoda

  Williams Racing
Car: Williams FW43B
06. Nicholas Latifi
63. George Russell


Unlucky No. 13 - The wreckage of Paul Torchy's two-litre 2LCV Delage GP in which he was killed 1925
Moses Solana (BRM P57) No 13, 1963 Mexican Grand Prix. Mexico City, 11th position, retired.

 Unlucky No.13 is a very unusual starting number and the FIA and several other race organizers conspicuously avoid appointment of the number. In fact, the history of excluding No.13 as an entry number goes back to 1925 when Paul Torchy was killed and 1926, when Giulio Masetti died in a Maserati carrying the No.13 when taking part in the Targa Florio. Since then, the number is not issued by organizers of motorsport events, even though a driver has the right to request it. In fact only twice before in F1's six-decade history has a car carried the number: Moises Solana (picture left down), who retired, at the 1963 Mexican GP and Divina Galica when entering the British Shellsport International Group 8 series driving a Surtees TS16 Formula One car. Galica did manage to take third place at the Brands Hatch and second place at the Donington Park rounds. Galica also failed to qualify for the 1976 British GP carrying number 13.
And then, a new FIA regulation introduced from 2014 onwards is for drivers to have permanent number throughout their careers, with numbers 2 to 99 available with number 1 reserved for the defending World Champion, if he wants to use it. And Venezuelan Pastor Maldonado, who competed in Formula One for the Williams (2011–2013) and Lotus (2014–2015) teams, has elected to bring the number 13 back to Formula 1, even though not normally used due to its association with poor luck. Let’s hope the number proves luckier for Maldonado who says it has a long history in Venezuelan sport.
Before entering Formula One, he won the 2010 GP2 Series championship. He became the first Venezuelan to win a Formula One Grand Prix when he won the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix for Williams, from his first and only pole position. When it comes to Maldonado's reputation, Maldonado gained a reputation over his career as somewhat wild, accident-prone and unpredictable on the circuit. He was nicknamed "Crashtor" and a website called Has Maldonado Crashed Today? was created to track his many mishaps. Out of 96 grands prix, there were 29 retirements, and he incurred 39 penalties in his colourful F1 career, that's one every 2.4 races and 12 were for causing a collision.

2014/15/16/17 Formula 1 Rules vs. 2013 Formula 1 Rules

The 2014 season brings with it the biggest revisions to the Formula One technical regulations I can remember. Here is a short list of most important changes, and how 2014 rules compare with rules in action during 2013 Formula 1 season. The new rules have presented a huge challenge for the teams and engine manufacturers. Almost every single part of the car is a new design, from the front wing right back to the diffuser. It's been a massive job to accommodate all the changes of the power unit, especially new cooling requirements of the power unit, and what is the best way to optimize it in the chassis. So, let's se it.


You may copy and use any of the content of this site provided you make a clear link on your web site or printed matter to 'Formula 1 dictionary" as the source of that information. Also, you can not use my material and articles to make any money. I'm not making any money with this site, so why would you. I endeavour to ensure that the information I publish is free of other copyrights but it is essential that you check this for yourself before using. It is never my intention to deliberately infringe the copyright of any other person or organisation. If you have any concerns then please use the "Mail me" and I will investigate and take whatever action is necessary to rectify. As a volunteer and strictly non-profit making my only concern is to preserve information for future generations.


"The principle is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

Books to read

When we talk about legends in F1, Murray Walker is one of the few to earn the status outside of the cockpit. His passion for the sport was infectious, and never failed to make people smile. He was a master of his trade and will always be the voice of F1. God's Speed Murray and thanks for so much.
My thoughts go out to his family at this difficult time.

Terrible news about passing of Sabine Schmitz, a proper driving legend who'll be sadly missed by many. A fierce competitor, talented racer and "Queen of the Nürburgring" was an inspiration to many. She was the only woman to win the epic 24-hour at Nürburgring. She won in 1996 and then again the next year.
She suffered a longstanding illness with cancer.
She was 51. RIP Sabine.

Questions of race have made me tired since I understand what police brutality was, especially in America. I feel that what happened in the US was just a spark, that sparked everywhere ... I do think George Floyd's death sparked it across the world and I think it's amazing. Black Lives Matter is an activist movement which began as a hashtag #BlackLivesMatter after George Zimmerman was acquitted in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed African-American teenager killed in Florida in July 2013.
Black Lives Matter is an inarguable demand for justice, equality, and reform regardless of race, skin color, or religion.

Some useful links:

- f1technical.net, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

 - autosport.com, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

 - gurneyflap.com, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950.

Enjoy range of Podcasts and Articles on Motorsport. Every week a Formula one chat on Missed Apex F1 Podcast with F1 journalist Joe Saward and tech Analyst Matthew Somerfield as guests. Also the exciting all electric racing series formula E on eRadio Show and Bike Show Lean Angle Podcast.

-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

 - fia.com, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

 - wikipedia.org, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

 - carbibles.com, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

- Daretobedifferent.org Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.